Glazing Systems

Virtually any type of glazing system can be used with structural glass facades. Check out the options

glazing systems

FRAMED

Framed systems support the glass continuously along two or four sides. There are many variations of framed systems, most of which fall into two general categories. Conventional unitized curtainwall systems are seldom used with structural glass facades.

glazing systems 2

STICK

Stick-built glass facades are a method of curtain wall construction where much of the fabrication and assembly takes place in the field. Mullions of extruded aluminum may be prefabricated, but are delivered as unassembled “sticks” to the building site. Mullions are then installed onto the building face to create a frame for the glass, which is installed subsequently. Economical off-the-shelf stick curtain wall products are available from various manufacturers that may be suitable for application in structural glass facades, primarily on truss systems.

 

glazing systems 3

VENEER

Truss systems can be designed with an outer chord of square or rectangular tubing, and may include transom components of similar material, presenting a uniform flat grid installed to high tolerances. Such a system can provide continuous support to the simplest and most minimal off-the-shelf glazing system, thus combining relatively high transparency with excellent economy. A veneer glazing system is essentially a stick-built curtain wall system designed for continuous support and representing a higher level of system integration with resulting efficiency. Variations can include 4-sided capture, 2-sided capture, structurally glazed and unitized systems.

 

glazing systems 4

PANEL / CASSETTE

Panel systems are typically constructed from a framed glass lite. The framed panel can then be point-supported by a supporting structural system, while the glass remains continuously supported on two or four sides. This also allows the panel to be stepped away from the support system — a practice that visually lightens the facade. Panel systems can be prefabricated, benefiting from assembly under factory-controlled conditions.

Cassette systems combine properties of stick, veneer and panel systems. While variations exist, the predominant makeup of a cassette system is comprised of a primary structural mullion system, which is stick built. These provide the support and facilitate the attachment of the glass panels. The glass lites are factory assembled into minimal frames, which form an integral connection with the primary mullion system. A cassette system can be designed to be fully shop-glazed, requiring no application of sealant during field installation.

 

glazing systems 5

FRAMELESS

Frameless systems utilize glass panes that are fixed to a structural system at discrete points, usually near the corners of the glass panel (point-fixed). The glass is directly supported without the use of perimeter framing elements. Glass used in point-fixed applications is typically heat-treated.

 

glazing systems 6

POINT-FIXED BOLTED

The most popular (and often most expensive) glass system for application in structural glass facades is the bolted version. The glass panel requires perforations to accommodate specialized bolting hardware. Specially designed off-the-shelf hardware systems are readily available, or custom components can be designed. Cast stainless steel spider fittings are most commonly used to tie the glass to the supporting structure, although custom fittings are often developed for larger facade projects. The glass must be designed to accommodate bending loads and deflections resulting from the fixing method. For overhead applications, insulated-laminated glass panels require the fabrication of 12 holes per panel, which can represent a cost constraint on some projects.

 

glazing systems 7

POINT-FIXED CLAMPED

Point-fixed clamped systems are a solution for point fixing without the perforations in glass. In the case of a spider type fitting, the spider is rotated 45 degrees from the bolted position so that its arms align with glass seams. A thin blade penetrates through the seam between adjacent pieces of glass. An exterior plate attaches to the blade and clamps the glass in place. The bolted systems present an uninterrupted glass surface, while the clamped systems expose the small exterior clamp plate. Some facade designers prefer the exposed hardware aesthetic. While clamped systems have the potential for greater economy by eliminating the need for glass perforations, the cost of the clamping hardware may offset at least some savings, depending upon the efficiency of the design.

 

double skin facade 2

Double-Skin Facade

The double-skin facade is a system of building consisting of two skins, or facades, placed in such a way that air flows in the intermediate cavity. The ventilation of the cavity can be natural, fan supported or mechanical. Apart from the type of the ventilation inside the cavity, the origin and destination of the air can differ depending mostly on climatic conditions, the use, the location, the occupational hours of the building and the HVAC strategy.

 

The glass skins can be single or double glazing units with a distance from 20 cm up to 2 meters. Often, for protection and heat extraction reasons during the cooling period, solar shading devices are placed inside the cavity.

double skin facade 1

tiffany

Again, Cooperated With Tiffany

Ordered by Tiffany&CO-Korea, 19mm +SGP+25mm with 25mm beveled with four sides stepped glass.

It is super clear tempered laminated glass.

four sides stepped glass

Spider System

With constant development in science and technology, glass curtain walls are finding increasingly more applications and their structures are also experiencing great changes. Fully spider fitting frame-less glass curtain walls, connect glass together in an open space using various types of light/heavy steel structures via various types of spider fitting members to form flexible and unobstructed glass facade. In this way, fully spider fitted glass walls not only maintain the safety of aluminum alloy frame glass curtain wall but also eliminate the disadvantages of the later in singular structure and restrictions from construction structures. As a result they provide unobstructed view as a whole, neat, bright and integrated with such advantages as safety, practicality and artistic taste thus becoming a vogue for modern construction and decorations.

 

Thermally toughened or tempered glass panels are used as single or insulated glass units. In case of single panels laminated safety glass is preferred due to safety reasons. This system consists of a number of accessories with metal arms. At the end of each arm, a sheet of glass is fixed by the corners with a special screw. The vacuum between these sheets is filled up with isolators to overcome mechanical pressure and weather conditions.

 

The rectangular glass sheets have 4 or 6 countersunk drilled holes into which countersunk stainless steel bolts acting as point-fixings. The space between the glass panes are filled with weather seal. The support elements that hold the fitting can be space frame, glass fin, tension cables or steel circular columns to provide the aesthetic effect as desired by the customer.

spider system

ministry of education headquarters building 3

The Ministry of Education Headquarters Building

The production for Project: The Ministry of Education Headquarters Building is going well.

So far,4 full 40′ containers have been shipped out.

Check below pictures for super clear tempered glass with colorful paintinglaminated coloful glasscaremic firt glass.

ministry of education headquarters buildingministry of education headquarters building 1

Low e glass 2

Double Glazing for Thermal Insulation

What is Low-e Glass?

Glass used in double glazing window for thermal insulation is known as Low E, or low-emissivity glass. It has a transparent metallic coating that works in two ways to economise heating energy. The dual action coating reflects heat back into the room, whilst allowing heat and light from the sun (known as passive solar heat gain) to pass through. Thermal insultion glass should be used on face 2 or 3 of a double glazing unit.

low e glass

U Values

The ‘U’ value of a double glazing window is the measure of its ability to transfer heat – so double glazing windows with the lowest U value are the most efficient insulators against heat loss from a room.

low e glass 1

Solar Heat Gain

The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), which measures a thermal insulation glass’ ability to transmit solar energy into a room, is measured in value from 0 to 1. The SHGC is commonly referred to as the g-value, or solar factor. The higher the g value, the greater a thermal insulation window’s ability to transmit solar heat (see Window Energy Ratings) and thus increase its energy efficiency.

 

Types of Low E Solutions

The most efficient thermal insulation glass use a unique manufacturing process which builds up microscopic layers coating, using a technology known as sputtering, under vacuum conditions. (See online and offline coatings). This advanced process builds up a highly resistant, but imperceptively thin coating which gives it a much clearer appearance than other thermal insulation glass. The coating also allows maximum daylight and heat into the room for optimised solar gain. Some products have been shown to reduce heat loss by 24% more than traditional online coated thermal insulation glass, and by 40% compared to standard double glazing window. Further energy savings can be made by using warm edge ‘thermal break’ spacer bars. These can reduce heat lost around the edge of the window by up to 65%

 

This article quote from http://www.double-glazing-info.com/Choosing-your-windows/Types-of-glass/Low-E-energy-saving-glass

safety wooden crates packing 7

Safety Standard Export Wooden Crate Packing for Our Glass

Hongjia packing – Standard export wooden crates

 

In addition to the glass, the packing is also important. Our packings comply with export standards and meet customer requirements.

According to customer’s requirements, we can do as follows:

Standard packing method: with small rubber cushion between the glass panels.

safety wooden crates packing 5

For mirror or some special glass type which need protect the surface, the glass will be packed with protect film which use much more foam, bubble bag

safety wooden crates packing

Special requirements: packing with paper between the glass panels, corner protection.

safety wooden crates packing 4

Special requirements: packing piece by piece.

safety wooden crates packing 1

Different shipment, different packing:

Glass ship by LCL or air, traditional full packed with wooden, Min. width 500mm.

safety wooden crates packing 3

Special protect packing way for LCL or air shipping glass products.

safety wooden crates packing 6

Standard packing for glass products which ship by FCL.

packing by fcl

pvb vs eva laminated glass 2

PVB vs EVA Laminated Glass

pvb vs eva laminated glass

Laminated Glasses

 

Laminated glass is a combination of two or more glass sheets with one or more plastic inter layers

(EVA /PVB /SGP)sandwiched by the glass sheets. In case of breakage the interlayer will hold the glass fragments together. It is manufactured through a process of heat and vacuuming.

 

Laminated glass is used when there is a possibility of human impact or where the glass could fall if shattered. It can be found in windshields, skylights, balconies, bank teller windows, and jewelry counters to name a few applications.

 

Interlayer Film : SGP / PVB / EVA

Cost: SGP > PVB > EVA

Safety:SGP > PVB > SGP

Color:EVA > PVB > SGP

(also EVA does well connected with many different materials,so it’s a very nice interlayer for decoration glass)

Bulletproof glass is als laminated glass, it is several film and glass laminated.

Normally,it comes with PVB,dear client,if you have enough budget,then think about SGP  : )

 

We are known in the industry for offering a complete range of Laminated Glasses comprising PVB Laminated Glass and EVA Laminated Glass in various dimensions, as per the specifications of our clients. These glasses are widely applicable in homes and offices owing to their distinguishing features of high strength, soundproof, anti-shock and fade resistance. Our range of precisely designed Laminated Glasses is explained below:

 

PVB Laminated Glass

Laminated glass, commonly used in the automotive and architectural fields, comprises a protective inter layer, usually polyvinyl butyral, bonded between two panels of glass. The bonding process takes place under heat and pressure. When laminated under these conditions, the PVB inter layer becomes optically clear and binds the two panes of glass together. Once sealed together, the glass “sandwich” (i.e., laminate) behaves as a single unit and looks like normal glass. The polymer inter layer of PVB is tough and ductile, so brittle cracks will not pass from one side of the laminate to the other.

 

We source a wide range of Laminated Glasses from trusted vendors of the industry. PVB Laminated Glass is formed from a combination of two or more glass sheets with one or more inter layers of plastic (PVB) or resin. The inner plastic offers strength to the glass, especially in case of a breakage. In such as case, the interlayer holds the fragments together and continues to provide resistance. These glasses are best suited for shop-fronts, balconies, stair-railings and roof glazing, where it is important to ensure the resistance of the whole sheet after breakage.

We offer two types of laminated glasses, PVB and resin laminated glass. PVB laminated glass is formed by the combination of two or more sheets of glass which are bonded together with one or more layers of PVB under heat and pressure. The resultant is a single piece of glass. On the other hand, resins laminated glass is manufactured by pouring liquid resin into the cavity between two sheets of glasses that are held together till the time resin gets cured. Our range of PVB Laminated Glasses is characterized by the following features:

 

Good safety performance

Anti-bumping and anti-shock

Pierce resistance

Soundproof and heat isolated

Strong UV resistance

Available in diversified colors

Durable and fadeless

 

The range is offered in the following technical specifications, to suit the diverse requirements of our clients.

 

Maximum size: 2000 mm × 3000 mm

Minimum size: 300 mm × 300 mm

Thickness: 4 -80 mm

Number of layers: 1- 4

PVB color: Clear, milky, gray, blue, green, pink and bronze

PVB thickness: 0.38 mm, 0.76 mm and 1.52 mm or above

 

EVA Laminated Glass

We are engaged in supplying Resins Laminated Glass that is manufactured by pouring liquid resin into the cavity between two sheets of glasses. These sheets are held together until the resin cures. The material of construction used in laminated glasses is a high adhesive film made of polymer resins of ethylene vinyl acetate. Further, the range is appreciated by the clients for the following features:

 

Excellent safety performance

Wide range of processing temperature

High anti-aging and optics performance

Suitable for small oven producing

Simple curing process

Storage at normal temperature

Good adhesive to other material

 

We offer laminated glasses in different dimensions of thickness, width and length to meet the diverse requirements of the clients:

 

Thickness: 0.15 mm, 0.20 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.38 mm, 0.76 mm, 1.14 mm

Width: 1800 mm x 2200 mm

Length: 150 m, 100 m per roll

 

Fabric EVA Lamination is the combination of plain, tinted, reflective, figured, mirror in various thickness from 2 mm to 12 mm with clear, colored films and clothes. it is frequently used by architects and interior decorators for various application such as exterior, interior and decorative purpose.

It has following advantages:

  • Anti UV clear
  • Transparent colors
  • White Opaque
  • Transparent clear
  • Opaque colored
  • Frosted effect.

Tempered Heat Socked Glass

Overview of Heat Soaked Glass:

Tempering process increases the strength of glass many folds, offering a greater resistance to breakage. However, the raw-materials used in the manufacturing of tempered glass are not free from certain defects like nickel-rich contaminants such as stainless steel might be present, and then combine with sulphur to form nickel sulphide inclusions, which put tempered glass at potential risk of spontaneous breakage.

 

Spontaneous breakage due to NiS inclusions:

When glass is heat-treated, the nickel sulfide inclusions are modified into a form that grows or transforms with time and temperature. Once glass is installed and the nickel sulfide inclusions are solar heated, small cracks may develop from the inclusion. If these cracks penetrate the tension layer of fully tempered glass, the resulting release of energy will cause the glass to spontaneously break.

 

NiS inclusions change their structure and volume during the heating process of tempering. This changed state is ^trapped^ during the quenching process. So at room temperature, the NiS inclusions tend to change back to their original state, which having bigger volume, cause spontaneous breakage. This changing back of state could happen in a few minutes to a few years, making it unpredictable when the tempered glass may break. To minimize the risk of NiS breakages, a heat soak test is performed.

 

Heat Soak Process:

Effective Heat soaked test has been proposed and applied for tempered glass to avoid spontaneous failure in buildings, and the probability of spontaneous breakage was decreased. However, it was considered that a sufficiently low breakage risk was remained because of small NiS inclusion and small residual stress.

 

Heat soaking of tempering glass has carried out in respect to the draft of European Standard EN 14179. Following the tempering process, glass is heated to a temperature of about 290C for a minimum of 2 hours of the heat soak period, and then cooled slowly. This process allows the inclusions to revert to their original form and thus regain their stability. The advantage in using this process is that the heat-soak test removes over 95% of the problem without affecting the properties of the glass. The idea behind heat soaking is to allow the glass to break in the factory before installation to minimize the risks of accidents and injury. The amount and size of these inclusions vary from glass to glass. In all probability, the glasses that have NiS inclusions will break during this heat soaking process.

 

Applications of Heat Soaked Glass:

The use of heat soaked tempered glass is recommended where the risk of spontaneous breakage would cause difficulty, either from a replacement point of view, or where falling glass fragments may be unsuitable, such as roof or high level glazing, balustrades, screens and high level curtain walling.

Heat soak glass is appropriate where there is a risk of human impact. If breakage does occur, the breakage pattern is such that the resultant pieces of glass are relatively harmless and are unlikely to cause severe injury.

heat soaked

u value or k value

U-Value or K Value

Describes the rate of Thermal energy passing through a material due to conduction, convection,

and radiation under specific environmental conditions.

It is calculated using material thermal conductance and surface emissivity values

which are intrinsically measured.

Lower values describe lower rates of heat energy transmitted through a material

and hence improved insulation values.

For glazed areas, the surface emissivity of glass can be dramatically reduced

by high performance coatings and this is a major factor in reducing this value.

U-Value is expressed in units of Btu/hr ft² °F, K-Value in W/m² °C

and different standardized conditions are used for these calculations.

To convert imperial to metric values multiply by 5.6783

u value or k value