Plastic can exist for a thousand years, can glass be longer than it?

Plastic pollutants are the main pollutants produced by human activities. Plastics can become the main pollutants because they are difficult to degrade. If you want the plastic to degrade naturally in nature, it usually takes 200 to 1,000 years. Even ordinary plastic bags have a natural degradation time of 200 to 400 years.

Although plastic is difficult to degrade, another material used by humans is tougher than plastic and has a much longer existence in nature. It is glass. Is there any basis that glass can survive longer than plastic? Of course, there is. Because humans have a long history of manufacturing glass, as early as 1000 BC, that is, more than 3000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians had mastered the glass blowing technology.

By blowing glass, the ancient Egyptians could make all kinds of exquisite glass products. And more than 1,000 years before the advent of glass blowing, there were glass products. In other words, 4,000 years ago, humans could

Until today, archaeologists have discovered a large number of glass products from different periods, and these glass products are well preserved. This shows that there has been no effect on glass for thousands of years. Glass can be stored for thousands of years, so what if it is longer? In fact, the existence of glass in nature is much longer than you think. To know how long glass can exist, we must first understand what glass is. The main components of glass are silicon dioxide and other oxides. It is an amorphous solid with an irregular structure.

The so-called irregular structure means that the arrangement of atoms inside the glass looks messy and irregular.

mesh laminated glass

 

Under normal circumstances, the molecular arrangement of liquids and gases is chaotic, while the arrangement of atoms in solid substances, especially metal substances such as iron, is extremely orderly. Glass is solid, but the arrangement of atoms is as chaotic as a liquid. what is the problem? In fact, the atomic arrangement of glass means that chaos contains order.

On the whole, the atomic arrangement of glass is indeed irregular, but if you observe it one by one, you will find that every silicon atom is connected to four oxygen atoms. This chaotic arrangement of atoms is orderly. A special term is called “short-range order.” This is why glass is very hard but very fragile.

The special arrangement of atoms gives the glass high hardness. On the other hand, due to the extremely stable chemical properties of glass, it hardly reacts with any substance, which makes it almost impossible for glass to be corroded in nature.

, So the only way to destroy the glass is to conduct a physical attack. In nature, the erosion of wind and rain, the abrasion of sand and rock, and the movement of geology can cause the glass to break. After all, glass is very fragile. In our daily lives, we often see such a phenomenon that the transparency of newly installed glass will decrease after several years of use. This is due to the physical wear of the glass surface caused by the erosion of rain and the friction of wind and sand.

Indian glass bridge

85 feet long and 6 feet wide! India’s first glass bridge

Indian glass bridge 200 feet high, 85 feet long, and 6 feet wide. Some 15mm glass mirrors have been used to construct the bridge. It is reported that the mirror has a thickness of 45 mm and is completely transparent.

The person walking on it feels like floating in the air. The local area is also very concerned about the safety of tourists. The bridge can accommodate about 40 tourists at a time.

 

The glass sky bridge is a marvel of architecture and is part of the 500-acre natural wildlife park under development. It is to let the tourists who come here feel everything. “According to the official introduction, tourists can also do archery, horseback riding, hiking, treehouses, wooden houses, medicine gardens, and other activities here. With the help of ropes, sky bikes are another highlight here.

According to reports, technically speaking, this is the second glass bridge in India; but in fact, such a glass bridge is still the first. The first mention of Rishikesh in Uttarakhand has not yet been completed. In February of this year, Uttarakhand announced the replacement of the iconic Lakshman Cable Bridge built-in 1923 with a glass bridge because it is not suitable for tourists. According to the design of the Ministry of Works, the total length and width of the new bridge are 132.2 meters and 8 meters respectively, and the width of the glass floor is 1.5 meters. However, the construction of this bridge has not yet started

Glass partitions can give you the quietness and safety you need

What are the advantages of tempered frosted glass partition?
1. Whether at home or in the office, you want to protect your privacy and not be disturbed by the outside world. The most prominent feature of tempered frosted glass partition is that it has good sound insulation because frosted glass itself is a kind of sound insulation glass. In essence, I feel that the tempered frosted glass partition is very soundproof.

2. The toughened frosted glass partition has strong safety. The frosted glass is different from ordinary glass. When it is impacted by the outside, it will not be broken. It is intact as before. It is a protective film attached to the glass. It greatly increases safety, which is deeply loved and supported by consumers

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3. The tempered frosted glass partition can effectively protect personal privacy. The frosted glass is opaque and can well cover the room and play an effective role in protecting privacy.

4. Although the tempered frosted glass partition is opaque, it will not block the sunlight, and the light can be well irradiated, which is very well done.

5. The tempered frosted glass partition also effectively blocks ultraviolet rays and protects furniture from fading, such as carpets, various furniture, wall hangings, etc., and effectively shields ultraviolet rays.

When choosing a tempered frosted glass partition, you must first pay attention to its material and the accuracy of the frosted glass. Attention should also be paid to the safety and explosion-proof properties of the tempered frosted glass partition, and more attention should be paid to the privacy effect of the tempered frosted glass partition. All of the above need to be paid attention to.

The hardest glass comes out? Can scratch diamond crystals and approach its strength

As we all know, the diamond, which symbolizes loyal love, is a relatively hard natural substance known in the world and is usually used to cut glass in the industry. As a raw material for diamonds (diamonds), carbon is one of the attractive elements, and exploring new forms of carbon has always been the eternal theme of scientific research.

A paper published in the National Science Review (NSR) in early August introduced a new type of glass born in the laboratory: AM-III, which is the hardest glass material known so far. Scratch the diamond crystal and approach its strength.

The producers of AM-III carbon are a group of materials scientists from Yanshan University. They found that crystalline and amorphous carbon can produce high-strength glass under a certain ratio. Molecule) After compression under high temperature and high-pressure environment, this hard carbonaceous material is formed.

In addition to superior strength, AM-III also has the characteristics of electrical conductivity and high-temperature resistance. In other words, this new material has a hardness comparable to that of diamonds, as well as good electrical conductivity that diamonds do not have. In the future, this material has broad application prospects, or it can be used in bulletproof glass, military weapons,

and optoelectronic equipment.

Will the glass supply be tight in the next few years?

 

Will glass be in short supply? Glass is restricted by reforms on the restricted side, production capacity cannot be expanded, and production capacity has returned to a low level. The overall production capacity declined during the 2020 epidemics. Based on the production capacity in 2019, the average annual glass production capacity in 2019 and 2021 will be reduced. 3% The production capacity from 2021 to mid-July is 52.24 million tons/year, an increase of 10.6% over the same period in 2020 and an increase of 8.8% over 2019. Supply, demand, and supply have caused the glass to continue to strengthen in recent years. In addition, China’s photovoltaic installed capacity is growing rapidly, and the market will have a higher growth rate in 2025 with the advent of the era of photovoltaic flatness.

Glass Industry Information

DP Securities stated that under the guidance of the goal of “Carbon Achievement and Carbon Neutrality”, the photovoltaic industry will maintain rapid development in the future. During the 14th Five-Year Plan period of the project, the global average new installed capacity will reach 210-260GW. At the same time, as the penetration rate of double-glass modules continues to increase, the demand for photovoltaic glass will maintain high growth. According to Huaxi Securities’ analysis, Neutral conservatively estimated that the average annual demand for photovoltaic glass in 145 was 12.5 million tons. Even if new production capacity is considered, the industry will still maintain a tight supply in the next 2-3 years.

Road to the decarbonization of the glass industry: electrification

Road to the decarbonization of the glass industry: electrification

 

Unlike steel and cement, glass has a clear path to decarbonization: electrification.

However, renewable power has been scarcer than the industry had hoped, raising concerns about its ability to meet EU climate targets.

The recovery rate of the glass bottle industry is as high as 70%.

To meet the EU’s 2030 decarbonization target, the glass bottle industry now hopes to switch gas furnaces to electricity supply, providing 80 percent of electricity and 20 percent of gas for businesses in a “Kiln of the Future” pilot.

 

Although recycling consumes less energy than producing glass bottles, it is still energy-intensive.

The energy used so far has been based on fossil fuels, making recycling and glass bottle production generally less green than is often assumed.

As a result, according to a senior spokesperson for THE European glass container industry body, FEVE, the glass container industry emits about 8-9 million tons of CARBON dioxide per year, which accounts for more than 1% of the EU’s 27 industrial emissions, a significant share.

In the face of decarbonization pressure, the glass packaging bottle industry for electrification.

The aim is to build a proof-of-concept furnace in Germany, where the Ardagh Group, a multinational glassmaker, is building a new plant.

Ardagh declined to comment on the construction status.

The goal is to build an electric furnace by 2023 that will use electricity to melt glass of various sizes and colors while being twice as energy-efficient as a traditional fossil fuel furnace.

 

Fabrice Rivet, FEVE’s technical director, said, “We want to show that it’s possible to meet with 80 percent electricity, and that’s the goal.”

For technical reasons, first-generation electric stoves were forced to derive 20 percent of their energy from natural gas.

For the second generation, we will definitely see how to replace 20 percent of the natural gas to bring some heat to the melt.

To do this, the industry is considering options such as second-generation electric heating, hydrogen or biogas, and the development of the second-generation electric furnace will begin in 2027.”

If the initial pilot goes according to plan, the model could be rapidly replicated across the glass container industry, achieving a 50% reduction in emissions by manufacturers across all plants.

However, high research and development and power costs hold back the industry, which needs public support.

The Furnace of the Future project hopes to tap into EU innovation funds and is currently in the second phase of the selection process with a €20 billion grant.

Recently, the European industry has been increasingly vocal about its challenges in decarbonizing production and remaining competitive.

While the industry’s new electric stoves will be more energy efficient than traditional fossil fuel stoves, their decarbonization effect will also largely depend on the availability of renewable electricity.

About 20 percent of Germany’s electricity comes from coal and the industry is seeking green power purchase agreements to ensure sufficient quantities of renewable energy for the future.

However, the glass industry’s shift to renewable energy has also heightened concerns in other energy-intensive industries: rising demand and the slow growth of renewable electricity.

As the economy is electrified, demand for clean power is rising in new sectors such as transportation, construction, and industry.

According to industry experts, Germany’s electricity demand will soar from 567.6 billion kilowatt-hours in 2019 to 700 billion kilowatt-hours in 10 years.

As a result, UlrikStridbæk of Danish energy company ø Rated warns that renewable power capacity needs to be increased quickly, or the supply of renewable energy will soon become a bottleneck for other sectors, such as green hydrogen production.

“We need to double existing renewable energy capacity to meet the 55% greenhouse gas target set by the EU climate law by 2030,” warns Michaela Holl.

This will further encourage EU countries and private investors to build renewable power generation capacity as soon as possible.

Are You Tired Of Flat Glass? Try This

With the development of the times, hot-bent glass is used more and more in construction and civil occasions. Building hot-bent glass is mainly used for building interior and exterior decoration, daylighting roof, sightseeing elevator, arched corridor, etc. Civil hot-bent glass is mainly used for glass furniture, glass aquariums, glass counters, and so on.

Hot-bent glass is a curved glass that is heated to close to the softening point and formed by various specific molds, gravity,

A Stylish Way Of Partition, Glass Partition


Today is the last day of the Spring Festival holiday. We call this day the Lantern Festival. May this new year bring you happiness and prosperity.
Have a blessed one! Happy Lantern Festival


Can Figured Glass be tempered?

Figured glass

Container freight rates soared by 300%

Due to the spread of the global epidemic, the entire cross-border market is ups and downs, especially the logistics efficiency is the most inefficient. Also, shipping companies have increased prices unanimously, the global supply chain is unbalanced, and the actual capacity is still very tight. These conditions add up to full container space, price increase, shortage of containers, and suspension of shipping.

 

 

Since June, the freight rates of many routes such as the US route, Africa route, Mediterranean route, and Nordic route have continued to soar. According to the latest data, the US West and US East have increased by 161.6%