stained glass

Stained Glass

Stained glass, in the arts, the colored glass used for making decorative windows and other objects through which light passes. Strictly speaking, all colored glass is “stained,” or colored by the addition of various metallic oxides while it is in a molten state; nevertheless, the term stained glass has come to refer primarily to the glass employed in making ornamental or pictorial windows. The singular color harmonies of the stained-glass window are due less to any special glass-coloring technique itself, however, than to the exploitation of certain properties of transmitted light and the light-adaptive behavior of human vision.

Of all the painter’s arts, stained glass is probably the most intractable. It is bound not only by the many light-modulating factors that affect its appearance but also by comparatively cumbersome, purely structural demands.

Why is it called stained glass?

The term stained glass derives from the silver stain that was often applied to the side of the window that would face the outside of the building. When the glass was fired, the silver stain turned a yellow color that could range from lemon to gold. Stained glass was usually used to make windows, so that the light would shine through the painting. It is a form of painting that began over 1,000 years ago and is still essentially made the same way today.

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How stained glass is made?

  1. Drawing

An artist would initially make a sketch of the overall composition of a window. Then full-sized drawings for the whole window or for different sections (panels) of the window were made.  Generally, the shapes of the individual glass pieces, the details to be painted, and the colors of the glass were indicated on the cartoon.

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  1. Cutting

Different colors of glass were chosen for separate parts of the design, and the outline of each piece was then painted on the surface with white lime wash. Pieces were cut into rough shapes using a dividing iron, the heated tip of which was applied to the surface of the glass, causing it to break. The pieces were further reduced to the desired size with a grozing iron—an iron bar with a slot at each end that was used to chip away at the edges of the glass until the exact shape was created.

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  1. Painting

After the glass pieces were cut and shaped, they were painted with a special pigment. Once painted, the separate pieces of glass were placed in a wood-fired oven called a kiln. The heat of the kiln causes the vitreous paint to fuse permanently to the surface of the glass.

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  1. Lead

Pieces of glass are held together with narrow strips of lead to form a panel. These strips are referred to as “lead came.” Lead is used because it is flexible and provides the adaptability needed for fitting around the various shapes of the glass pieces.

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  1. Glazing

“Glazing” is the term for assembling a panel of stained glass that can then be set into a window. After separate pieces of glass are painted and fired, they are placed in position on the cartoon and joined together with lead came to form a panel.

The sections of came are then joined together with solder, an alloy of lead and tin that melts easily at a low temperature and sets quickly.

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  1. Cementing

The panel is then cemented to help secure the glass within the leads and to waterproof the window. A semi-liquid cement is applied with a brush and then is covered with a layer of chalk or sawdust to absorb excess liquid. The medieval recipe for this cement is not known, though the main ingredients were probably crushed chalk and linseed oil. The panel is then scrubbed down with a dry brush until the cement only remains under the lead.

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  1. Scrubbing the panel with a dry brush

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Stained Glass Dome

Stained glass domes and ceilings from Hongjia Glass are a unique and interesting way to add color and light to any space. The modular design of our stained glass ceilings and domes allows for us to create them in any shape. The modular pieces can be combined to make any size dome or ceiling you desire. We have lots of designs to choose from us or send your designs and ideas, and we can customize them for you.

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We are happy to answer any questions, talk about options or assist with your unique needs.

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glass countertop

Glass Countertops

Glass countertops are one of the most versatile materials you can use in your kitchen. As you’ll see below, glass countertops are available in a wide variety of styles, colors, and textures. Because it can be shaped and formed into an endless number of different styles, glass pairs well with just about any material and can create some seriously unique designs that stretch the imagination.

glass countertop

Glass countertops are also extremely durable, and because it won’t age over time, there’s no need to worry about visible wear or discoloration. Unlike some natural stone or metal countertops, glass is extremely heat resistant, so you can safely place hot pots and pans right on the surface without worrying about warping or shrinkage. Maintenance is also a breeze because glass countertops aren’t porous like granite or other stone materials. Spills can be easily wiped off without any worry of staining. The lack of porosity also makes glass a hygienic option as there are no cracks or crevices for dirt and bacteria to get trapped in.

 

Many glass countertops are made from recycled materials, making it a great eco-friendly option for homeowners who are concerned with watching their environmental footprint. This also makes it a comparatively cheaper option than natural stone or metal materials.

 

Back-Painted Glass

If you’d like a solid-colored countertop, glass is a great way to have a unique spin on an otherwise simplistic look. Back-painted glass countertops offer a very clean look that’ll complement your sleek modern or contemporary kitchen design.

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Textured Glass

For a super contemporary look, utilizing glass in its clear state with a textured design is an awesome way to lend a futuristic, unique and eye-catching look to your kitchen. From fun swirls and curlicues to crackled, dimpled or water-like textures, you’re sure to find a look that speaks to your personality and personal design style.

 

Glass with LED

If you love accent lighting and are looking to go way outside of the box with your kitchen countertop, then adding LED lights will surely take your countertop to the next level. For ultra-modern, sleek, futuristic kitchens, back-lit textured glass countertops are a breathtaking sight to behold, especially when paired with a waterfall edge.

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mirror 8

Mirror’s Charming You Have to Know

It’s Colorful: Clear,Black,Grey,Bronze,Green,Blue,Pink,Golden ect.

mirror

It’s various: Silver Mirror,Aluminiumm Mirror,Antique Mirror,Copper free Mirror ect.

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It’s home/business/commercial decoration.

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It’s part of construction.

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It’s hundred changes.

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It’s art.

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It’s Magic.Do you dare to use this special toilet?

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Wired Glass

Wired glass is a type of glass into which a wire mesh is embedded during production. Wired glass has an impact resistance similar to that of normal glass, but in case of breakage, the mesh retains the pieces of glass. This product is traditionally accepted as a low-cost fire-resistant glass. Wired glass can be tinted by aerosol or electricity. Common colours are golden-yellow, green, light blue and violet-rose.

Wired glass is manufactured primarily as a fire retardant, with wire mesh inlaid in the glass to prevent it from shattering and breaking out under stress or when exposed to high temperatures. With the windowintact, the glass keeps the fire at bay, protecting those on the other side from the harmful effects of smoke and flame.

However, in recent times, experts warn against the use of wired glassas a fire-resistant substance. This because although the mesh may prevent the fire from penetrating, by itself it could prove dangerous, being made of fine, sharp wires which can hurt. Today, special fire-resistant glass is available, which is devoid of the wire mesh as a component and can cut off not just the fire but even smoke, gases and deadly radiant heat.

Wired patterned glass is widely used to window, door, partition, ect.

 wired glass

Thickness 6mm, 6.5mm, 7mm

Color Clear, amber, bronze, blue, green, grey

Size 2000x1500mm, 1830x2440mm, custom sizes

Applications Window, door, partition, furniture

Certificate CE, ISO, CCC, BS6202

Packing Exportation plywood box

Delivery time 7-10 days

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Wired glass is a product in which a wire mesh has been inserted during production. It has an impact resistance similar to that of normal glass, but in case of breakage, the mesh retains the pieces of glass. This product is traditionally accepted as low-cost fire glass.Production A steel wire mesh is sandwiched between two separate ribbons of semi-molten glass, and then passed through a pair of metal rollers which squeeze the “sandwich of glass and wire” together.

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It is looks like laminated glass, there is wire between 2 clear glass layers.

Actually, it is one kind of clear float wire glass, it has standard thickness, and standard size.

Normally our MOQ of this is one crates, and price is basic on the final qty you requirement.

If you are interested in it, please feel free contact with us.

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Double Glazing for Thermal Insulation

What is Low-e Glass?

Glass used in double glazing window for thermal insulation is known as Low E, or low-emissivity glass. It has a transparent metallic coating that works in two ways to economise heating energy. The dual action coating reflects heat back into the room, whilst allowing heat and light from the sun (known as passive solar heat gain) to pass through. Thermal insultion glass should be used on face 2 or 3 of a double glazing unit.

low e glass

U Values

The ‘U’ value of a double glazing window is the measure of its ability to transfer heat – so double glazing windows with the lowest U value are the most efficient insulators against heat loss from a room.

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Solar Heat Gain

The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), which measures a thermal insulation glass’ ability to transmit solar energy into a room, is measured in value from 0 to 1. The SHGC is commonly referred to as the g-value, or solar factor. The higher the g value, the greater a thermal insulation window’s ability to transmit solar heat (see Window Energy Ratings) and thus increase its energy efficiency.

 

Types of Low E Solutions

The most efficient thermal insulation glass use a unique manufacturing process which builds up microscopic layers coating, using a technology known as sputtering, under vacuum conditions. (See online and offline coatings). This advanced process builds up a highly resistant, but imperceptively thin coating which gives it a much clearer appearance than other thermal insulation glass. The coating also allows maximum daylight and heat into the room for optimised solar gain. Some products have been shown to reduce heat loss by 24% more than traditional online coated thermal insulation glass, and by 40% compared to standard double glazing window. Further energy savings can be made by using warm edge ‘thermal break’ spacer bars. These can reduce heat lost around the edge of the window by up to 65%

 

This article quote from http://www.double-glazing-info.com/Choosing-your-windows/Types-of-glass/Low-E-energy-saving-glass

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Safety Standard Export Wooden Crate Packing for Our Glass

Hongjia packing – Standard export wooden crates

 

In addition to the glass, the packing is also important. Our packings comply with export standards and meet customer requirements.

According to customer’s requirements, we can do as follows:

Standard packing method: with small rubber cushion between the glass panels.

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For mirror or some special glass type which need protect the surface, the glass will be packed with protect film which use much more foam, bubble bag

safety wooden crates packing

Special requirements: packing with paper between the glass panels, corner protection.

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Special requirements: packing piece by piece.

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Different shipment, different packing:

Glass ship by LCL or air, traditional full packed with wooden, Min. width 500mm.

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Special protect packing way for LCL or air shipping glass products.

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Standard packing for glass products which ship by FCL.

packing by fcl

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PVB vs EVA Laminated Glass

pvb vs eva laminated glass

Laminated Glasses

 

Laminated glass is a combination of two or more glass sheets with one or more plastic inter layers

(EVA /PVB /SGP)sandwiched by the glass sheets. In case of breakage the interlayer will hold the glass fragments together. It is manufactured through a process of heat and vacuuming.

 

Laminated glass is used when there is a possibility of human impact or where the glass could fall if shattered. It can be found in windshields, skylights, balconies, bank teller windows, and jewelry counters to name a few applications.

 

Interlayer Film : SGP / PVB / EVA

Cost: SGP > PVB > EVA

Safety:SGP > PVB > SGP

Color:EVA > PVB > SGP

(also EVA does well connected with many different materials,so it’s a very nice interlayer for decoration glass)

Bulletproof glass is als laminated glass, it is several film and glass laminated.

Normally,it comes with PVB,dear client,if you have enough budget,then think about SGP  : )

 

We are known in the industry for offering a complete range of Laminated Glasses comprising PVB Laminated Glass and EVA Laminated Glass in various dimensions, as per the specifications of our clients. These glasses are widely applicable in homes and offices owing to their distinguishing features of high strength, soundproof, anti-shock and fade resistance. Our range of precisely designed Laminated Glasses is explained below:

 

PVB Laminated Glass

Laminated glass, commonly used in the automotive and architectural fields, comprises a protective inter layer, usually polyvinyl butyral, bonded between two panels of glass. The bonding process takes place under heat and pressure. When laminated under these conditions, the PVB inter layer becomes optically clear and binds the two panes of glass together. Once sealed together, the glass “sandwich” (i.e., laminate) behaves as a single unit and looks like normal glass. The polymer inter layer of PVB is tough and ductile, so brittle cracks will not pass from one side of the laminate to the other.

 

We source a wide range of Laminated Glasses from trusted vendors of the industry. PVB Laminated Glass is formed from a combination of two or more glass sheets with one or more inter layers of plastic (PVB) or resin. The inner plastic offers strength to the glass, especially in case of a breakage. In such as case, the interlayer holds the fragments together and continues to provide resistance. These glasses are best suited for shop-fronts, balconies, stair-railings and roof glazing, where it is important to ensure the resistance of the whole sheet after breakage.

We offer two types of laminated glasses, PVB and resin laminated glass. PVB laminated glass is formed by the combination of two or more sheets of glass which are bonded together with one or more layers of PVB under heat and pressure. The resultant is a single piece of glass. On the other hand, resins laminated glass is manufactured by pouring liquid resin into the cavity between two sheets of glasses that are held together till the time resin gets cured. Our range of PVB Laminated Glasses is characterized by the following features:

 

Good safety performance

Anti-bumping and anti-shock

Pierce resistance

Soundproof and heat isolated

Strong UV resistance

Available in diversified colors

Durable and fadeless

 

The range is offered in the following technical specifications, to suit the diverse requirements of our clients.

 

Maximum size: 2000 mm × 3000 mm

Minimum size: 300 mm × 300 mm

Thickness: 4 -80 mm

Number of layers: 1- 4

PVB color: Clear, milky, gray, blue, green, pink and bronze

PVB thickness: 0.38 mm, 0.76 mm and 1.52 mm or above

 

EVA Laminated Glass

We are engaged in supplying Resins Laminated Glass that is manufactured by pouring liquid resin into the cavity between two sheets of glasses. These sheets are held together until the resin cures. The material of construction used in laminated glasses is a high adhesive film made of polymer resins of ethylene vinyl acetate. Further, the range is appreciated by the clients for the following features:

 

Excellent safety performance

Wide range of processing temperature

High anti-aging and optics performance

Suitable for small oven producing

Simple curing process

Storage at normal temperature

Good adhesive to other material

 

We offer laminated glasses in different dimensions of thickness, width and length to meet the diverse requirements of the clients:

 

Thickness: 0.15 mm, 0.20 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.38 mm, 0.76 mm, 1.14 mm

Width: 1800 mm x 2200 mm

Length: 150 m, 100 m per roll

 

Fabric EVA Lamination is the combination of plain, tinted, reflective, figured, mirror in various thickness from 2 mm to 12 mm with clear, colored films and clothes. it is frequently used by architects and interior decorators for various application such as exterior, interior and decorative purpose.

It has following advantages:

  • Anti UV clear
  • Transparent colors
  • White Opaque
  • Transparent clear
  • Opaque colored
  • Frosted effect.

Tempered Heat Socked Glass

Overview of Heat Soaked Glass:

Tempering process increases the strength of glass many folds, offering a greater resistance to breakage. However, the raw-materials used in the manufacturing of tempered glass are not free from certain defects like nickel-rich contaminants such as stainless steel might be present, and then combine with sulphur to form nickel sulphide inclusions, which put tempered glass at potential risk of spontaneous breakage.

 

Spontaneous breakage due to NiS inclusions:

When glass is heat-treated, the nickel sulfide inclusions are modified into a form that grows or transforms with time and temperature. Once glass is installed and the nickel sulfide inclusions are solar heated, small cracks may develop from the inclusion. If these cracks penetrate the tension layer of fully tempered glass, the resulting release of energy will cause the glass to spontaneously break.

 

NiS inclusions change their structure and volume during the heating process of tempering. This changed state is ^trapped^ during the quenching process. So at room temperature, the NiS inclusions tend to change back to their original state, which having bigger volume, cause spontaneous breakage. This changing back of state could happen in a few minutes to a few years, making it unpredictable when the tempered glass may break. To minimize the risk of NiS breakages, a heat soak test is performed.

 

Heat Soak Process:

Effective Heat soaked test has been proposed and applied for tempered glass to avoid spontaneous failure in buildings, and the probability of spontaneous breakage was decreased. However, it was considered that a sufficiently low breakage risk was remained because of small NiS inclusion and small residual stress.

 

Heat soaking of tempering glass has carried out in respect to the draft of European Standard EN 14179. Following the tempering process, glass is heated to a temperature of about 290C for a minimum of 2 hours of the heat soak period, and then cooled slowly. This process allows the inclusions to revert to their original form and thus regain their stability. The advantage in using this process is that the heat-soak test removes over 95% of the problem without affecting the properties of the glass. The idea behind heat soaking is to allow the glass to break in the factory before installation to minimize the risks of accidents and injury. The amount and size of these inclusions vary from glass to glass. In all probability, the glasses that have NiS inclusions will break during this heat soaking process.

 

Applications of Heat Soaked Glass:

The use of heat soaked tempered glass is recommended where the risk of spontaneous breakage would cause difficulty, either from a replacement point of view, or where falling glass fragments may be unsuitable, such as roof or high level glazing, balustrades, screens and high level curtain walling.

Heat soak glass is appropriate where there is a risk of human impact. If breakage does occur, the breakage pattern is such that the resultant pieces of glass are relatively harmless and are unlikely to cause severe injury.

heat soaked

switchable transparent glass 7

More Detail Information About Hongjia Switchable Transparent Glass

switchable transparent glass switchable transparent glass 1

About the Plastic Frame:

Check below picture, the switchable transparent glass comes with plastic frame when you get the glass. So,

(1) Please consider the thickness of the frame before you tell us your customized size, plastic frame thickness: 2mm.

(2) Of course if you need a glass next to another glass, the connected side is no need frame, please tell us you need full sides come with plastic or some sides do not need.

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About the glue:

If you just need 1piece switchable transparent glass, then you just need the our glue for the four sides, but if you need 2 or more glass installed together or you want to install it next to another common glass, it needs glue specially used in the middle of two glass.

Attention, the switchable transparent glass is very sensitive, the glue we supply to you is tested without problem, please don’t use other glue to install the switchable transparent glass, no matter surrounding size or the connected size between two glass.

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laminated skylights 1

Customized Clear Heat Strengthened Glass For Laminated Skylights

Specifications:

 

Thickness: 3-19mm

 

Available color: clear, bronze, blue, green, gray, black, etc.

 

Max specification:

 

Flat heat-strengthened glass: 3000*8000mm

 

Bent heat-strengthened glass: 3000*5000mm, R=1500mm

 

Description:

 

Wind load, thermal stress. Bring it on.

 

Heat-strengthened glass is less prone to spontaneous breakage than tempered glass. And it’s the product of choice, with the exception of instances where tempered glass or laminated glass is required by law, wind load, local or national building codes.

 

Guardian heat-strengthened glass can be with holes or cutouts to process into Guardian heat-strengthened laminated glass, Guardian heat-strengthened insulated glass, etc.

 

Applications:

 

Suitable for use in spandrel and/or vision areas where added resistance to wind load and thermal stress is required.

 

Laminated solariums

 

High wind load areas

 

Laminated skylights

 

 

 

Competitive Advantage:

 

Approximately twice the mechanical and thermal strength of annealed glass of equal thickness.

 

Greater resistance to thermal loads than annealed glass.

 

Heat-strengthened glass is not a safety glass product.

Customized Clear Heat Strengthened Glass For Laminated Skylights